Market بازار The set of all actual and potential buyers of a product or service = A group of people or organisations that have similar needs and wants, the desire to satisfy those needs and wants, the means of exchange (money) to satisfy their needs and wants, and the ability and authority to make the exchange (purchase)
Marketing بازاریابی A social and managerial process whereby individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others
Demarketing بازاریابی کاهنده  Marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permanently; the aim is not to destroy demand, but only to reduce or shift it
Marketing Management مدیریت بازاریابی The analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives
Need نیاز A state of felt deprivation
Want خواسته The form taken by a human need as shaped by culture and individual personality
Hierarchy of needs سلسه مراتب نیازها A system of needs which includes physiological needs, the need for satisfaction, the need for belonging and love, the need for esteem, and the need for self-actualization
product محصول Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. It includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organizations, and ideas
Service خدمت Any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything
Customer value ارزش مشتری The difference between the values the customer gains from owning and using a product and the costs of obtaining the product
Customer satisfaction  رضایت مشتری The extent to which a product’s perceived performance matches a buyer’s expectations. If the product’s performance falls short of expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If performance matches or exceeds expectations, the buyer is satisfied or delighted
Consumer markets بازارهای مصرف The most visible markets, which consist of individual customers who buy products for their own use or for use by other members of their households
Industrial markets  بازارهای صنعتی Markets made up of organisations which buy in order to produce goods
Exchange  معامله The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return = A transaction between two or more persons, groups, or organisations in which each party gives up something of value and receives something of value
Transaction مبادله A trade between two parties that involves at least two things of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement
Relationship marketing بازاریابی ارتباطی The process of creating, maintaining, and enhancing strong, value-laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders
Competitive advantage مزیت رقابتی The part of a firm‘s total offering which is superior to that of its
Competitors رقبا Something unique or special that a firm does or possesses that provides an advantage over its competitors
Terms of core marketing concept واژه های اصلی مفهوم بازاریابی needs, wants, demand, value, cost, satisfaction, marketing, marketer, exchange, transaction, relationship
Core benefit مفنعت اصلی/ بنیادی The need that a product fulfills or the problem it solves
Buyers خریداران Those who carry out the formal arrangements for purchase, service, delivery, and financial terms
Demand  تقاضا A relation among the various amounts of a product that buyers would be willing and able to purchase at possible alternative prices during a given period of time, all other remaining the same
Compensatory decision rule  قانون تصمیم جبرانی A type of decision rule for evaluating alternatives where consumers consider each brand with respect to how it performs on relevant or salient attributes and the importance of each attribute. This decision rule allows for a negative evaluation or performance on a particular attribute to be compensated for by a positive evaluation on another attribute
Compensatory model مدل جبرانی A model which assumes that consumers judge a limited number of product attributes, that the attributes vary in importance to the consumer, and that strength in one area compensates for weakness in another
Non-compensatory model مدل غیرجبرانی A model of information processing in which a high rating for one attribute does not offset a low rating for other
Conjunctive decision rule  قانون تصمیم عطفی / ربطی A type of decision rule for evaluating alternatives where consumers establish minimally acceptable levels of performance for each important product attribute and accept an alternative only if it meets the cut-off level for each attribute
Consumer socialization process فرایند اجتماعی شدن مصرف کننده The process by which an individual acquires the skills needed to function in the marketplace as a consumer
Service market  بازار خدمات All organisations that buy in order to produce services
Vertical markets  بازارهای عمودی The markets on which products are tailored for specific industries
Horizontal markets  بازارهای افقی Markets on which products are sold to a wide range of industries
Utility سودمندی A measure of the satisfaction obtained through the receipt of something of value in an exchange
Form utility ابزار سودمندی / کاربردی The usefulness attributable to the form or design of something received
Users کابران Persons within an organisation who actually put a purchased product to work
Stakeholders سهامداران Those who use company‘s products or services, those who work for the firm, those who own it, and those who are affected by it
Total market potential  بازار بالقوه کل The total possible sales of the product by all competitors
Total market demand تقاضای کل بازار The total volume that would be brought by a defined consumer group in a defined geographical area in a defined time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined level and mix of industry marketing effort
Unitary demand  تقاضای واحد A given percentage change in price results in an identical percentage change in the quantity demanded
Time utility کاربرد زمان The usefulness given when something of value is received at the time it is wanted
Production concept  مفهوم تولید The philosophy that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency
Product concept مفهوم محصول The idea that consumers will favor products that offer the most quality, performance, and features and that the organization should therefore devote its energy to making continuous product improvements. A detailed version of the new-product idea stated in meaningful consumer terms
Selling concept مفهوم فروش The idea that consumers will not buy enough of the organization’s products unless the organization undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort
Marketing concept مفهوم بازاریابی The philosophy that business organisations achieve their profit and other goals by satisfying consumers
Marketing concept  مفهوم بازاریابی The marketing management philosophy that holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors do